Corresponding author: Shuhei Niitsu ( email@example.com )
Academic editor: Jadranka Rota
© 2016 Shuhei Niitsu, Utsugi Jinbo, Yoshitsugu Nasu.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Niitsu S, Jinbo U, Nasu Y (2016) The first discovery of the genus Narycia (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) from Japan, with description of a new species. Nota Lepidopterologica 39(2): 137-143. doi: 10.3897/nl.39.9603
A new species of the family Psychidae Narycia emikoae Niitsu, Jinbo & Nasu, sp. n. is described from Japan with illustrations of adults and genitalia, biological information, and DNA barcode data. The larvae feed on lichens on rocks. The discovery of the new species might help us to understand the Palaearctic biogeography of psychid moths.
The family Psychidae is comprised of nearly 1,350 species globally (
The genus Narycia was established by Stephens in 1836 (type species: Tinea monilifera Geoffroy, 1785). This genus belongs to the tribe Naryciini of the subfamily Narycinae, and includes several species known from the Palaearctic Region (
In 2011, 2013, and 2015, one of us (SN) collected some unknown psychid larval cases at Yunomaru-kougen in Gunma Pref., Honshu, Japan. Through morphological observation of the larval cases we noticed that they were similar to those of the genus Narycia. They were reared and emergence of both male and female adults was obtained, both of which have well-developed wings and are capable of flight. Based on examination of the wing venation, genitalia and the foreleg condition of this species, we concluded that it belongs to the genus Narycia and is new to science. In the present paper it is described as a new species, Narycia emikoae sp. n., and its biology is described, including the structure of the larval cases.
The larvae and pupae of the new species described here were collected at the following localities: Yunomaru-kougen, Tsumagoi-mura, Gunma Pref., Honshu, Japan in 2011–2015.
For examination of the wing venation, wing scales were removed in 70% aqueous ethanol, and wings stained with acetocarmine solution. Legs and genitalia were dissected after being macerated in a 10% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide for about ten hours at room temperature. The legs were stained with acetocarmine solution and the genitalia with chlorazol black E.
Images of adults were obtained using digital cameras. For pictures of adults, multi-focused montage (stacked) images were produced using Helicon 4.75 Pro from a series of source images taken by a Canon EOS Kiss X5 digital camera attached to a Nikon SMZ1270 microscope. In addition, images of legs and genitalia were taken using a Nikon Coolpix 8400 camera attached to a Nikon Eclips E200 microscope. Digital images of adults, genitalia and larval case were enhanced using Adobe Photoshop software.
For DNA analysis, a hind leg was removed from each reared adult (two males). Total DNA was extracted using Qiagen DNAeasy Blood and Tissue Kit and following the manufacturer’s instructions. Fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene were amplified following the standard protocol for capturing DNA barcodes. The DNA fragments obtained were sequenced by the Dragon Genomic Center, Takarabio Inc, or using an ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer. The closest species were searched, based on the DNA barcode sequence obtained, using the identification engine of Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (
Nom. Br. Insects (2): 118.
Tinea monilifera Geoffroy, 1785 (=Narycia elegans Stephens, 1836), by monotypy.
Small-sized blackish-brown moths (wing span 9.0–11.0 mm) with fully developed wings in both sexes. The present new species is closely similar to European Narycia astrella on the basis of wing color and pattern, but different from it as follows. The wing span of emikoae is much smaller than that of astrella (wing span 12–14 mm given by Kozhanchikov 1956). The large yellowish-white spot at the central costal area of the forewing in the female is much larger than that of astrella. It is smaller in size than astrella as the ratio of valva and phallus in emikoae is 1.0, while that of astrella is about 0.6 (
Narycia emikoae Niitsu, Jinbo & Nasu, sp. n. 1. Paratype male from Yunomaru. 2. Paratype female from Yunomaru. 3. Larval case.
Narycia emikoae Niitsu, Jinbo & Nasu, sp. n. 4. Forewing venation. 5. Hindwing venation. 6. Female left foreleg. 7. Female left midleg. 8. Female left hindleg. 9. Male left tibia of foreleg, scaled condition. 10. Female left tibia of foreleg, scaled condition. Black arrows point to the long hair tuft of the fore-tibia in Figs
Venation of wings (Figs
Male genitalia (Figs
Narycia emikoae Niitsu, Jinbo & Nasu, sp. n. 11. Entire male genitalia, lateral view. 12. Phallus, lateral view.
Female genitalia (Fig.
13. Narycia emikoae sp. n. female genitalia, ventral view. (aa, apophysis anterioris; ap, apophysis posterioris; c, corpus bursae; d, ductus bursae; o, ostium bursae; s, sclerotizations of 7th sternite armed with hair tuft). 14. A pair of large hair tufts on the seventh sternite of the female (black arrow).
Ovipositor long. Apophysis posterioris slender, longer than apophysis anterioris. Ostium bursae opens in a posterior position on segment VIII, but unclear (Fig.
Japan (Gunma Pref., central Honshu).
Sequences of DNA barcode region were obtained from two specimens and registered to DDBJ (Accession No. LC160294, 287 bp; LC160295, 648 bp). No difference was found between 287 bp of the two obtained fragments. According to a search using BOLD identification engine, the DNA barcode sequence of the new species is the closest to those of Narycia duplicella with 96.53 to 97.25% similarity. The difference between the DNA barcode sequences of two species suggests that the two species should be recognized as distinct species. On the other hand, we cannot compare the new species and N. astrella because there is no registered sequence of the latter species in BOLD database.
Holotype - Male. Yunomaru-kougen, Gunma Pref., Honshu, Japan, 1. vii. 2011 (emerg.), S. Niitsu (Coll. ID
Larvae feed on lichens. The larval case is oval, covered with dark green lichen and sand (Fig.
The species name is dedicated to Emiko Niitsu, who helped us to collect the bagworm of the new species.
The genus Narycia is allied to the genus Paranarychia Saigusa, 1961, a monotypic genus known from Japan. According to
The new species undoubtedly belongs to the genus Narycia. The wing venation, the forewing color patterns and the male genitalia are typical of other Narycia species. The result of DNA barcode analysis also supports the inclusion of this species into Narycia, though DNA barcode data is available only for one known species N. duplicella. However, the new species has one unique character, i.e. the fore-tibia of the new species lack an epiphysis not only in the female, as other member species of Narycia, but also in the male. Such foreleg condition, without an epiphysis in the male, is unique to this new species.
The genus Narycia is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic Region. The six known Eurasian Narycia species usually inhabit forests, while the new Japanese species mostly inhabits open and arid places such as roadsides. In addition, the species is also found in high altitude mountainous areas of Japan. It is considered that the high altitude areas of central Honshu in Japan function as interglacial refugia in Far East Asia for many organisms of cold regions, including Lepidoptera (
In general, small-sized psychid species feeding on lichens have low migration ability and speciation might occur in various places. In fact, the distribution area of each Narycia species is restricted in certain areas. Taken together, the new Narycia species found from central Honshu in Japan might be a relic from the glacial epoch, and this discovery may help us bring new insight to the biogeography of Palaearctic psychid moths. In future, a phylogenetic and biogeographical study will be required to clarify the systematic position of this species, the evaluation of the unique character of the male fore-tibia with a hair tuft, and the diversification of this genus.
We express our thanks to Thomas Sobczyk for taxonomic literature and useful information on the genus Narycia and to Emiko Niitsu for her kind assistance in our field survey. We are furthermore grateful to Dr. Ian Sims for his improvement of our English and his useful comments. Our thanks are also due to Dr. Takashi Yamasaki for his help in taking and arranging digital microscopic photographs. We also thank Drs Aino Ota-Tomita and Nobuaki Nagata for their support with the molecular analysis.