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Data Paper
Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera) of Thrace Region of Turkey
expand article infoFeza Can Cengiz, Konstantin A. Efetov§, Kamuran Kaya, Elena E. Kucherenko§, Zühal Okyar|, Gerhard M. Tarmann
‡ University of Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, Turkey
§ Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Russia
| University of Trakya, Edirne, Turkey
¶ Tiroler Landesmuseen, Hall, Austria
Open Access

Abstract

The Zygaenidae fauna of the Thrace Region (European Turkey) was studied by using attractant traps as well as by netting specimens in biotopes. Esters of 2-dodecenoic acid and stereoisomers of 2-butanol were used as sex attractants. Sixteen Zygaenidae species from five genera were found: Theresimima Strand, 1917 (1 species), Rhagades Wallengren, 1863 (2 species), Adscita Retzius, 1783 (3 species), Jordanita Verity, 1946 (4 species), and Zygaena Fabricius, 1775 (6 species). Rhagades (Rhagades) pruni (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) and Jordanita (Jordanita) globulariae (Hübner, 1793) were found as new for Turkey. The two species of the same genus Rh. (Rh.) pruni and Rh. (Wiegelia) amasina (Herrich-Schӓffer, 1851) were discovered in proximity to each other in different localities of the same Province Tekirdağ.

Introduction

The Thrace Region is the European part of Turkey that covers 3% of the whole territory of the country. It comprises the provinces Edirne, Kırklareli and Tekirdağ and some parts of İstanbul and Çanakkale. Turkey, extending from Asia to Europe, is one of the most species-rich countries in the Western Palaearctic (Karaçetin and Welch 2011). A study on the biodiversity of the local lepidopteran fauna can be a useful tool for environment protection. Moths of the family Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera) are excellent indicators of environmental conditions (Efetov 2005). A decline in their number in populations is often a consequence of degradation of suitable habitats because of land-use, intensification of agriculture, and climate change (Hofmann and Tremewan 2017).

Based on recent revisions, the family Zygaenidae includes five subfamilies: Inouelinae Efetov & Tarmann, 2017; Procridinae Boisduval, 1828 (with tribes Artonini and Procridini); Chalcosiinae Hampson, 1892 (with tribes Chalcosiini, Cyclosiini, Agalopini, Aglaopini and Heteropanini); Callizygaeninae Alberti, 1954; and Zygaeninae Latreille, 1809 (with tribes Pryeriini and Zygaenini) (Efetov 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 1998, 1999, 2001b, 2001c, 2006, 2010; Efetov and Tarmann 2000, 2012, 2013a, 2013b, 2014a, 2014b, 2016a, 2016b, 2017; Efetov et al. 2004, 2006, 2011, 2014b, 2015a; Efetov and Hayashi 2008; Efetov and Savchuk 2013; Efetov and Knyazev 2014; Knyazev et al. 2015a, 2015b; Mutanen et al. 2016; Hofmann and Tremewan 2017). According to previous publications, the Zygaenidae fauna of Turkey is represented by two subfamilies: Procridinae (22 species) and Zygaeninae (31 species) (Mollet 1995; Efetov and Tarmann 1999; Naumann et al. 1999; Efetov 2001a, 2004, 2005; Kemal and Koçak 2010). Five species of Zygaenidae are so far known from the territory of Turkey only: Jordanita (Jordanita) chloronata (Staudinger, 1871), Zygaena (Mesembrynus) lydia Staudinger, 1887, Z. (Agrumenia) formosa (Herrich-Schӓffer, 1852), Z. (A.) peschmerga Eckweiler & Görgner, 1981, and Z. (Zygaena) problematica Naumann, 1966.

To date, the fauna of Zygaenidae of the Thrace Region has not been sufficiently studied. Some information can be found in the works of Mathew (1881), Rebel (1913), Buresch (1915), Graves (1914, 1925, 1926), de Lattin (1944, 1950), Reiss and Tremewan (1967), Baraniak et al. (1994), Seven (1991, 1993, 1995), Okyar and Aktaç (1997), Yurtsever et al. (2010), and de Freina (2012). However, these publications lack detailed information on the zygaenid moths of Thrace.

Materials and methods

The Zygaenidae fauna of the Thrace Region was studied by using attractant traps, by netting specimens in different biotopes in 2016, as well as by the investigation of material collected in previous years and deposited in the collection of Mustafa Kemal University (Antakya, Hatay, Turkey).

The sex attractants had been produced at the Crimean Federal University (Efetov et al. 2014c) and were esters of 2-dodecenoic acid and isomers of 2-butanol: EFETOV-2 (racemic mixture of R- and S-enantiomers) and EFETOV-S-2 (R-enantiomer). The attractiveness of 2-butyl 2-dodecenoate for males of some Procridinae species had been proved earlier in field observations undertaken in the Crimea (Efetov et al. 2016).

For preparing lures, the rubber caps impregnated with the attractants (100 microliters per cap without solvent) were placed in Delta traps containing removable sticky layers. The baits were hung on bushes or trees at a height of 1.0–1.5 m above the ground. In all sites that were prospected we also placed control traps without attractant. The distance between traps was not less than 10 m.

Field observations were undertaken in 61 localities in five provinces of the Thrace Region (Can Cengiz et al. 2016, 2017): Edirne, Kırklareli and Tekirdağ and also in the European parts of İstanbul and Çanakkale. Traps with attractants EFETOV-2, EFETOV-S-2 and control traps were set up in ten localities: 02, 07, 09, 29, 32, 36, 38, 51, 53, 60 (see below). The baits were placed on 18–23.v.2016 and inspected on 8–10.vi.2016 and 24–29.vi.2016.

The material that we collected is deposited in the collection of Mustafa Kemal University (Antakya, Hatay, Turkey). All maps are compiled from the BioOffice database of the Tiroler Landesmuseen, Innsbruck, Austria.

List of localities studied in the Thrace Region of Turkey (Fig. 1)

Province Edirne

01. Havsa-Osmanlı, 41°34’22”N, 26°49’55”E, 78 m.

02. Süloğlu Büyükgerdelli, 41°44’21”N, 26°56’47”E, 153 m.

03. Süloğlu, Gökçetepe, 41°46’16”N, 26°52’52”E, 204 m.

04. Musabeyli, 41°41’54”N, 26°41’26”E, 99 m.

05. Bosnaköy, 41°37’16”N, 26°34’01”E, 34 m.

06. Uzunköprü-Çöpköy, 41°13’45”N, 26°48’25”E, 69 m.

07. Trakya University Balkan Campus, 41°38’44”N, 26°37’14”E, 80 m.

08. Çukurköy, 41°27’32”N, 26°49’15”E, 50 m.

09. Uzunköprü Yeniköy, 41°22’21”N, 26°46’43”E, 121 m.

10. Meriç, 41°12’32”N, 26°27’18”E, 63 m.

11. Meriç Küplü, 41°06’51”N, 26°21’22”E, 21 m.

12. Meriç Balabancık, 41°02’07”N, 26°24’05”E, 13 m.

13. İpsala, 40°55’44”N, 26°23’50”E, 30 m.

14. Gala Lake Enez natural park, 40°44’51”N, 26°10’30”E, 15 m.

15. Enez, 40°43’23”N, 26°05’38”E, 5 m.

16. Enez-Büyükevren, 40°38’51”N, 26°14’22”E, 39 m.

17. Keşan, 40°48’29”N, 26°39’30”E, 100 m.

18. Keşan Gökçetepe, 40°38’16”N, 26°53’53”E, 13 m.

19. Hacidanisment, 41°52’38”N, 26°41’12”E, 259 m.

20. Lalapaşa Çallıdere, 41°57’14”N, 26°42’48”E, 432 m.

21. Lalapaşa Süleymandanışment, 41°53’23”N, 26°53’53”E, 388 m.

Province Çanakkale

22. Eceabat Şehitlik, 40°03’22”N, 26°13’31”E, 55 m.

23. Eceabat Alçıtepe, 40°07’32”N, 26°17’17”E, 56 m.

24. Behramlı Kilitbahir, 40°07’45”N, 26°21’09”E, 1 m.

25. Eceabat, 40°12’44”N, 26°23’09”E, 3 m.

26. Burhanlı, 40°17’47”N, 26°31’51”E, 13 m.

27. Koruköy, 40°33’43”N, 26°49’15”E, 44 m.

28. Evreşe, 40°39’30”N, 26°52’28”E, 20 m.

Province Tekirdağ

29. Uçmakdere, 40°47’51”N, 27°21’50”E, 115 m.

30. Marmara Ereğlisi, 41°03’00”N, 27°44’05”E, 9 m.

31. Çorlu, 41°14’55”N, 27°52’32”E, 128 m.

32. Çorlu Velimeşe, 41°14’18”N, 27°53’07”E, 132 m.

33. Saray, 41°24’42”N, 27°55’22”E, 185 m.

34. Saray-Güngörmez, 41°31’09”N, 28°00’53”E, 270 m.

35. Şarköy Yeniköy, 40°38’36”N, 26°59’15”E, 170 m.

36. Şarköy, 40°37’27”N, 27°05’39”E, 18 m.

37. Şarköy Mürefte, 40°39’44”N, 27°14’02”E, 3 m.

38. Mürefte Liman, 40°40’47”N, 27°16’00”E, 16 m.

39. Hayrabolu, 41°13’18”N, 27°00’59”E, 169 m.

40. Hayrabolu-Karababa, 41°07’22”N, 27°00’27”E, 101 m.

41. Malkara-Kiremitlik, 40°59’33”N, 26°56’32”E, 183 m.

42. Tekirdağ, 40°47’21”N, 27°22’10”E, 176 m.

43. Tekirdağ, 41°00’14”N, 27°30’42”E, 185 m.

Province Kırklareli

44. Yenice, 41°45’19”N, 27°41’05”E, 810 m.

45. Demirköy, 41°50’27”N, 27°33’23”E, 358 m.

46. İğneada, 41°52’33”N, 27°54’41”E, 34 m.

47. Karakoç, 41°47’40”N, 27°11’58”E, 326 m.

48. Vize-Akpınar, 41°36’14”N, 27°52’13”E, 302 m.

49. Lüleburgaz Evrensekiz, 41°21’28”N, 27°28’39”E, 66 m.

50. Babaeski, 41°24’30”N, 27°15’35”E, 68 m.

51. Kofcaz, 41°49’53”N, 27°10’56”E, 259 m.

52. Üsküpdere, 41°41’25”N, 27°22’07”E, 197 m.

53. Karıncak, 41°40’05”N, 27°26’58”E, 231 m.

54. Vize-Çavuşköy, 41°35’15”N, 27°44’40”E, 180 m.

55. Vize, 41°35’00”N, 27°47’45”E, 325 m.

Province İstanbul

56. Çatalca, 41°04’42”N, 28°30’29”E, 33 m.

57. Avcılar İstanbul University Campus, 40°59’30”N, 28°43’23”E, 74 m.

58. Yolçatı, 41°12’30”N, 27°59’58”E, 176 m.

59. Silivri, 41°05’48”N, 28°21’11”E, 83 m.

60. Bahçeköy Belgrad Forest, 41°10’30”N, 28°59’23”E, 95 m.

61. Silivri-Beyciler, 41°15’11”N, 28°06’53”E, 222 m.

We studied the collection deposited in Mustafa Kemal University to see if more material of Zygaenidae from the Thrace Region could be found. The nineteen specimens that we found were identified and are also included in the list of the Zygaenidae fauna of the Thrace Region. The pin-label data are provided in Table 4. When citing the labels, the symbol ‘/’ denotes the end of a line. In two cases handwritten labels with species’ names were corrected after examination.

Figure 1. 

Map of the Thrace Region with studied localities. Moth symbols show sites where Zygaenidae were caught (green: Procridinae; red: Zygaeninae); black dots: sites where Zygaenidae were not found; blue circles: sites where traps with attractants were placed.

Results

A total of 16 species of Zygaenidae are now known for the Thrace Region. Five Procridinae species were attracted to pheromone traps (Table 1). In spite of syntopic occurrences of Procridinae with Zygaena species, our traps were not attractive for burnets (Zygaena spp.). The males of Theresimima ampellophaga (Bayle-Barelle, 1808) and Rhagades (Rhagades) pruni (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) were attracted only to EFETOV-S-2. However, the males of Adscita (Adscita) statices drenowskii (Alberti, 1939) and Jordanita (Solaniterna) subsolana (Staudinger, 1862) were found in traps with EFETOV-S-2 as well as with EFETOV-2. The males of J. (Jordanita) globulariae (Hübner, 1793) were caught by trap with EFETOV-2. Among the species attracted, males of A. (A.) statices drenowskii and Th. ampellophaga were the most numerous: more than 30 specimens could be found in one trap (Fig. 2). The control traps were empty in all localities.

Figure 2. 

Sticky trap baited with EFETOV-2 with 34 males of Adscita statices drenowskii, Province Tekirdağ, Çorlu Velimeşe, 8–10.vi.2016.

Males of attracted Procridinae species.

Attracted species 8–10.vi.2016 24–29.vi.2016
EFETOV–2 EFETOV–S–2 EFETOV–2 EFETOV–S–2
Th. ampellophaga 1 ♂ – loc. 36
33 ♂ – loc. 38
3 ♂ – loc. 29
Rh. (Rh.) pruni 1 ♂ – loc. 32 1 ♂ – loc. 32
A. (A.) statices drenowskii 9 ♂ – loc. 53
12 ♂ – loc. 51
5 ♂ – loc. 07
10 ♂ – loc. 09
1 ♂ – loc. 36
1 ♂ – loc. 29
34 ♂ – loc. 32
2 ♂ – loc. 51
7 ♂ – loc. 07
4 ♂ – loc. 09
14 ♂ – loc. 32
3 ♂ – loc. 53
4 ♂ – loc. 51
8 ♂ – loc. 32
1 ♂ – loc. 36
3 ♂ – loc. 32
J. (J.) globulariae 2 ♂ – loc. 53
J. (S.) subsolana 1 ♂ – loc. 36 1 ♂ – loc. 36 1 ♂ – loc. 09
1 ♂ – loc. 32

In addition to the five Procridinae species attracted to pheromone traps, we collected another five species of Procridinae by netting during our fieldwork (Table 2), as well as five species of Zygaeninae (Table 3).

Procridinae species caught in the Thrace Region in 2016. Specimens attracted to EFETOV-2 are marked with one asterisk; specimens attracted to EFETOV-S-2 are marked with two asterisks; specimens collected by net are not marked.

Localities No 03 04 07 09 15 16 19 21 29 32 36 38 41 45 47 51 53 54 55 61
Th. ampellophaga 3** 1** 33**
Rh. (W.) amasina 1♂
Rh. (Rh.) pruni 2** 1♂
A. (A.) statices drenowskii 2♂
1♀
5*
7**
1♂
10*
4**
5♂
2♀
2♂ 1♀ 1* 42*
17**
13♂
4♀
1*
1**
1♂ 1♀ 16*
2**
12♂
12* 1♂
A. (A.) obscura 3♂ 2♂ 1♂ 2♂
A. (T.) mannii 1♂ 2♂
3♀
J. (T.) notata 1♂
J. (J.) graeca 1♂ 2♂ 1♂
1♀
1♂ 2♂
3♀
1♂
1♀
J. (J.) globulariae 2*
J. (S.) subsolana 1♂ 1** 1** 1*
1**
1♂ 1♂

Zygaeninae species caught in the Thrace Region in 2016.

Localities No 02 03 04 06 12 16 18 20 21 22 24 29 34 36 39 42 47 48 53 54 56 57 58 59 61
Z. (M.) diaphana 3♂
Z. (M.) punctum 1♂ 2♂
3♀
1♂ 1♂ 2♂ 1♂ 2♀ 3♂ 1♂ 1♀ 3♂ 1♂ 1♀ 1♂
Z. (A.) carniolica 1♀ 1♂ 8♂
4♀
2♂
1♀
1♂
3♀
Z. (A.) loti 1♂
1♀
3♂
3♀
Z. (Z.) filipendulae 1♂ 1♀ 1♂ 11♂
1♀
2♂
1♀
2♂
1♀
1♀ 4♂
1♀
1♂

By examination of material from the Thrace Region in the collection of Mustafa Kemal University, we discovered six species (Table 4), one of which was not collected by us in 2016 – Zygaena (Mesembrynus) purpuralis (Brünnich, 1763). For all specimens we provide data from the handwritten pin-labels.

Zygaenidae species from the Thrace Region in the collection of Mustafa Kemal University (Antakya, Hatay, Turkey) collected before 2016.

Species Label data
A. (A.) statices drenowskii 5♂ ‘TURKEY / EDIRNE / Leg. Z. Göbekçioğlu’, ‘6-6-1987 / Lalapaşa’;
1♀ ‘21.5.1992 / Hamzabeyli – / Lalapaşa’;
1♂ ‘14.6.1992 / Saray / 160 m’;
1♂ ‘14.6.1993 / Velika deresi / Demirköy / 500 m’;
1♂ ‘23.5.1998 / Hamzabeyli / 400 m’.
J. (T.) notata 1♂ ‘TURKEY / EDIRNE / Leg. Z. Göbekçioğlu’, ‘6-6-1987 / Donköy – / Lalapaşa’.
Z. (M.) purpuralis 1♂ ‘TR-EDIRNE / Güllapoğlu / 06.10.2001 / Leg. Z. OKYAR’.
Z. (M.) punctum 1♂ ‘13.6.1988 / Hadımağa / EDIRNE / Leg: C. Çakmak’, ‘Zygaena purpuralis [sic!]’;
1♀ ‘13.6.1988 / Hadımağa / EDIRNE / Leg: C. Çakmak’, ‘Trakya Unıv. / Entom. Collect. / leg: C. Çakmak’.
Z. (A.) carniolica 1♀ ‘6.7.1991 / Koru dağ / 350 m’, ‘Zygaena fausta [sic!]’.
Z. (Z.) filipendulae 1♂ ‘TURKEY / KIRKLARELİ / Leg. Z. Göbekçioğlu’, ‘17-6-1987 / Limanköy – / İğneada / 50 m’;
1♂ ‘4-6-1988 / Yılanlıkaya / mevkii / Tatarlar’;
2♂ ‘4.7.1992 / Kocayazı – / Kofçaz / 300 m’;
1♂ ‘24.6.1993 / Bahçeköy / Sarıyer’.

Thus, the checklist of Zygaenidae of the Thrace Region based on our fieldwork in 2016, as well as the material in the collection of Mustafa Kemal University includes 16 species:

Theresimima ampellophaga (Bayle-Barelle, 1808) – 37 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2 (Tekirdağ).

Rhagades (Wiegelia) amasina (Herrich-Schӓffer, 1851) – 1 male collected by net (Tekirdağ).

Rhagades (Rhagades) pruni (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) – 2 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2 (Tekirdağ); 1 male collected by net (İstanbul).

Adscita (Adscita) statices drenowskii (Alberti, 1939) – 87 males attracted to EFETOV-2 (Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ) and 31 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2 (Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ); 45 males and 10 females collected by net (Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, İstanbul).

Adscita (Adscita) obscura (Zeller, 1847) – 8 males collected by net (Kırklareli, İstanbul).

Adscita (Tarmannita) mannii (Lederer, 1853) – 3 males and 3 females collected by net (Kırklareli).

Jordanita (Tremewania) notata (Zeller, 1847) – 2 males collected by net (Edirne, Kırklareli).

Jordanita (Jordanita) graeca (Jordan, 1907) – 8 males and 5 females collected by net (Edirne, Kırklareli).

Jordanita (Jordanita) globulariae (Hübner, 1793) – 2 males attracted to EFETOV-2 (Kırklareli).

Jordanita (Solaniterna) subsolana (Staudinger, 1862) – 1 male attracted to EFETOV-2 (Tekirdağ) and 3 males to EFETOV-S-2 (Edirne, Tekirdağ); 3 males collected by net (Edirne, Kırklareli).

Zygaena (Mesembrynus) diaphana Staudinger, 1887 (bona species, see Nahirnić 2016) – 3 males collected by net (Tekirdağ).

Zygaena (Mesembrynus) purpuralis (Brünnich, 1763) – 1 male collected by net (Edirne).

Zygaena (Mesembrynus) punctum Ochsenheimer, 1808 – 18 males and 8 females collected by net (Çanakkale, Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, İstanbul).

Zygaena (Agrumenia) carniolica (Scopoli, 1763) – 12 males and 10 females collected by net (Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, İstanbul).

Zygaena (Agrumenia) loti (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) – 4 males and 4 females collected by net (Edirne, İstanbul).

Zygaena (Zygaena) filipendulae (Linnaeus, 1758) – 27 males and 6 females collected by net (Çanakkale, Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, İstanbul).

Discussion

Two compounds named as ‘EFETOV-S-2’ (R-enantiomer of 2-butyl 2-dodecenoate) and ‘EFETOV-2’ (racemic mixture of R- and S-enantiomers of 2-butyl 2-dodecenoate) were used in sticky traps. A. (A.) statices drenowskii was the most numerous attracted species (118 males were caught). This subspecies is distributed from the southern Balkans to the central and southern Turkey (Efetov and Tarmann 1999; Efetov 2001a, 2004). The large numbers of specimens caught during our study in different localities (Fig. 3) prove that A. (A.) statices drenowskii is widely distributed and abundant in the region investigated. Moreover, this is the first record of a sex attractant for A. (A.) statices drenowskii. The number of specimens (males) was significantly higher in traps baited with the racemic mixture of (2R)-butyl 2-dodecenoate and (2S)-butyl 2-dodecenoate than the number in traps baited only with (2R)-butyl 2-dodecenoate.

Figure 3. 

Distribution map of Adscita statices drenowskii in the Thrace Region with new data (yellow dots).

Experiments with other sex attractants of similar structure (R- and S-enantiomers of 2-butyl (7Z)-dodecenoate and 2-butyl (9Z)-tetradecenoate) in Crimea, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Armenia, and Turkey have shown that species of the genera Rhagades Wallengren, 1863, Zygaenoprocris Hampson, 1900, Adscita Retzius, 1783, and Jordanita Verity, 1946, also react differently to stereoisomers of the attractants and their various combinations (Efetov et al. 2010, 2011, 2014a, 2015b; Subchev et al. 2010, 2012, 2013, 2016; Subchev 2014; Razov et al. 2017).

In 2013 in the Crimea we attracted the males of Th. ampellophaga to the racemic mixture of (2R)-butyl 2-dodecenoate and (2S)-butyl 2-dodecenoate (Efetov et al. 2014c). In the field experiments (presented here) in the Thrace Region (Fig. 4) the males of Th. ampellophaga were attracted to (2R)-butyl 2-dodecenoate. Earlier the main sex pheromone component of Th. ampellophaga females was identified as (2R)-butyl (7Z)-tetradecenoate (Subchev et al. 1998). It is noteworthy that all above mentioned substances are esters of 2-butanol and fatty unsaturated acids with a long carbohydrate chain. Thus, the males can be attracted not only by the natural female pheromone but also by substance with a similar structure.

Figure 4. 

Distribution map of Theresimima ampellophaga in the Thrace Region with new data (yellow dots).

Rh. (Rh.) pruni was found for the first time in Turkey. That was possible due to the application of the sex attractants. Rh. (Rh.) pruni and Rh. (W.) amasina were recorded in the same Province Tekirdağ: Rh. (Rh.) pruni – in Çorlu, and Rh. (W.) amasina – in Malkara (Fig. 5). The known distribution of Rh. (Rh.) pruni outside of Turkey: north-eastern Spain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, northern Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia (northern, central and southern European part, Northern Caucasus, Siberia, Far East), Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, China, North Korea, and Japan (Efetov 2004).

Figure 5. 

Distribution map of Rhagades amasina (blue) and Rh. pruni (red) in the Thrace Region. New data are marked as squares.

J. (J.) globulariae is possibly also new for Turkey as the only literature data known so far originates from southern Turkey (Mollet 1995) and is doubtful because the mentioned locality is far away from the distributional range of this species. Old Rebel’s (1934) record of ‘Procris globulariae’ for Ankara must be attributed to another species, viz. J. (T.) notata (Zeller, 1847). Besides Turkey J. (J.) globulariae is known from central and northern Spain, Andorra, southern England, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, central and southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria, northern and central Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia (European part, Northern Caucasus) (Efetov 2004).

Conclusions

Sixteen Zygaenidae species from two subfamilies Procridinae (10 species) and Zygaeninae (6 species) have been recorded for the Thrace Region. Two species, Rh. (Rh.) pruni and J. (J.) globulariae, have been found for the first time in Turkey.

2-butyl 2-dodecenoate is a new sex attractant for the males of A. (A.) statices drenowskii.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mr Serdar Akar (Turkey) for his great support during our field work. We also wish to thank Dr J. Rota (Sweden), Prof. Dr P. Jakšić (Serbia) and Mr A. Hofmann (Germany) for fruitful discussions and improving this paper. This study was supported by BAP with Project № 15445 financed by Mustafa Kemal University of Turkey.

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